The life cycle of smart contracts in the blockchain ecosystem

smart contract in blockchain

For a moment, the Ethereum network, which was founded in 2013 by programmer Vitalik Buterin and other crypto enthusiasts, managed to dethrone Bitcoin. The primary reason for this was that, unlike Bitcoin, the Ethereum network could be used for a wide range of functions. Read more about smart contracts in the blockchain at

While Ethereum employs the same underlying blockchain technology as bitcoin, the implementation of smart contracts on the Ethereum network was decisive. Let’s take a closer look at smart contract and how they work on the blockchain.

Smart Contracts go through four stages in the Blockchain Ecosystem. A smart contract on the blockchain goes through numerous stages, as opposed to the lifespan of a blockchain, which begins with defining the issue you want to solve with your blockchain product and ends with a blockchain that solves the issue.

Check out this: What Are the Key Differences Between Cryptocurrency and Digital Currency?

Smart contract formulation, smart contract freezing, smart contract execution, and smart contract finalization are the four steps.

What are smart contracts?

As previously stated, smart contracts were originally launched on the Ethereum blockchain’s second generation. These are just scripts that are designed to run on the blockchain when certain predetermined parameters are met. The goal of smart contracts is quick execution, no intermediaries, and automation.

Smart contracts consist of three primary components:

  • A contractual arrangement between parties
  • The governance of set conditions in the execution of contractual obligations
  • Implementation of the contract

To make smart contracts work on the blockchain, the code that powers them includes predefined “if/when… then…” conditions. When these requirements are met, the contractual operations are carried out by programs running on decentralized applications, or dApps. Solidity, a Turing-complete language, is the scripting language for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain.

Payment transfers, vehicle registrations, notifications, ticket issuances, and other operations are examples of potential smart contract activities. When the selected transaction is completed, the blockchain data is updated. A framework like this assures that third parties cannot change it and that it can only be read by the parties involved in the transaction.
What is the foundation for these smart contracts?

The decentralized ledger system built on blockchains, as well as the network’s native coin, serves as the foundations for the smart contract banking system.

The blockchain-powered digital ledger system is crucial because the security and privacy of the transacting parties must be assured. Individual transaction data is successively aggregated and stored on blockchain blocks. The absence of central monitoring contributes to the security and immutability of such transactions.
The phases of a smart contract lifecycle:

Unlike the lifetime of a blockchain, which begins with the identification of a problem and ends with a blockchain that fixes the issue, a smart contract on the blockchain travels through several stages. These are their names:


The first step includes a large amount of contract negotiation and reiteration. The parties concerned must reach an agreement on the contract’s terms. It is quite similar to the typical contract negotiations that we are used to having in person, but it is kept digitally.

Participants in the contract must also have a wallet on the blockchain used to create the smart contract. Once the contract’s terms have been agreed upon, they must be codified. Codification can be difficult due to the individualized character of each smart contract.

As a result, most blockchain developers include the ability to test the behavior of a smart contract upon formation in order to replicate the actual behavior of the same.

This iterative necessity frequently necessitates additional communication between transactional parties and the coder. The smart contract is uploaded to the blockchain network and becomes irreversible upon mutual agreement of the terms following codification. If the terms need to be changed again, a new contract must be written.


Transactions on a blockchain are validated by a network of computers known as nodes. These nodes are nothing more than blockchain miners who use their processing capacity to ensure the fair governance of the smart contract. These miners are also paid a little fee in exchange for their work. This system ensures that the blockchain is not congested by false entries and only contains real contracts.

The contract and its participants are made public on the public ledger during the ‘freeze’ phase. During this time, all financial transfers are halted as the nodes serve as a governing body, determining if the preconditions for contract execution have been met.


The integrity of a smart contract is validated by the authenticating nodes, and the code is executed by the contract’s interference engine (or compiler). When one party’s inputs are received in the form of coins (as a promise to exchange goods), the interference engine generates a transaction triggered by the met criteria.

The revised transaction data is then posted to the blockchain and validated once more by the governing nodes to ensure fulfillment according to the contract’s agreed-upon terms. This verification process is guided by the ‘consensus mechanism,’ which can be Proof-of-Work (miners promise computing power to the blockchain in order to become nodes) or Proof-of-Stake (miners commit cryptocurrency to the blockchain to become nodes).


The consensus mechanism confirms that the assets transferred by the first party have been received and unfreezes them for the receiving party when the transaction data has been put onto the blockchain’s distributed ledger. This concludes the smart contract, which is then closed and documented. It cannot be changed or tampered with-a concept known as ‘finality.’

Can smart contracts be destroyed?

If something goes awry, the Ethereum blockchain has the capability to perform the self-destruct function. For developers, this is a two-edged sword because this capability allows for the flow of funds while identifying the situation as an emergency. This also provides a way for cyber attackers to illegally transfer money. The code of a smart contract becomes more complicated as a result of this vulnerability.

When such holes are uncovered, engineers also install upgraded protocols to strengthen security protections. After the gaps have been filled, a new contract is generated utilizing the revised protocols.